Have you looked at the current announcement of Apple’s transition from intel processors to ARM processors? Maybe you began reading up on things like instruction sets, RISC and CISC processors. You will quickly hit upon a lot of complicated terminology.
So how about going all the way back to basics, and look at what a CPU looks like if you strip it down to its bare bones. What are the most essential parts, and what is just cool stuff added to make it run faster?